March 2018


«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 41 March 2013

History of architecture

Yakimova Anastasia M.

PhD student.
Research supervisor: Professor A.V.Merenkov, PhD. (Architecture).
Ural State Academy of Architecture and Arts,
Ekaterinburg, Russia, e-mail: asp-life@yandex.ru



The article examines types of for-profit housing available abroad, as well as terms and notions used for describing them. The study involves a historical analysis of international experiences in the design and running of for-profit housing for the purpose of identifying planning solutions concealed behind certain terms and notions that are common in international literature. The analysis has provided the following groups of more frequent notions that are equivalent to the notion of for-profit housing:

  • ‘economy-class’ rental housing "tenement house"; Fr. "la maison de l'assistance"; De. "mietskaserne"; Sp."conventillo";
  • comfortable rental housing "apartment building" "rental apartment house", "apartment block", "block of flats", (Ger. "Mietshaus", Fr. "Immeuble de rapport" ("la maison lucrative"), Austr. "zinshaus");
  • furnished rental housing : "lodging housing", "rooming house";
  • rental housing of the bed-and-breakfast type: "boarding house", "bed-and-breakfast accommodation" (Ger. "Gasthaus", Jp. "minshuku")).

An attempt is made to identify the specific features such housing in different regions and historical periods as follows:

3rd -2nd century B.C.: the emergence of insula, a multi-storeyed rental housing type;

17th century: revival of multi-unit housing, the emergence of “apartments”, self-contained units;

18th century: rental housing acquires features which render it close to today’s (traditional) notion of for-profit housing;

19th century: the emergence of ‘economy-class’ sustainable rental housing, and rental housing for the middle class and for the upper class;

20th century: modification of the concept of for-profit housing.


  1. Kiyanenko, K.V. (2005) Housing typology: from design regulation to encouragement of variety. Zhlishchnoye Stroitelstvo, No.7, p. 2-6.
  2. Kiyanenko, K.V. (1999) Contemporary marketable housing: architectural typology, sociology and management: brief English-Russian terminological glossary. Vologda: Vologda State Technical University.
  3. Tenement. In: Big English-Russian Dictionary (2001) Moscow: AST; Minsk: Harvest.
  4. Apartment. Dictionary of American History. (2003) Stanley I. Kutler, ed. in chief, 3rd edition, New York [etc.]: Thomson/Gale, 2003.
  5. Apartment. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Hornby, A.S., Oxford : iWriter , 2010 – XII, 1796 p.
  6. Birmingham, St. (1995) Life at the Dakota: New York's most unusual address. Syracuse; New York: First Syracuse Univ. Press.
  7. Cromley, E. C. (1990) Alone together: a history of New York' early apartments. Ithaca; London: Cornell Univ. Press.
  8. Groth, P. (1994) Living downtown: the history of residential hotels in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  9. Tenement. Dictionary of American History. (2003) Stanley I. Kutler, ed. in chief, 3rd ed., New York [etc.]: Thomson/Gale.


Key words: apartments, ‘for-profit’ housing, rental housing, residential architecture

Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-70832 of 30.08.2017 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017