№3(59)
September 2017
ISSN
1990-4126

Russian

«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 40 December 2012

History of architecture


Lisitsyna Alexandra V.

PhD. (Architecture),
Associate Professor, Chair of Architectural Design.
Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. e-mail: av_lisitcyna@mail.ru

DECORATION IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE EARLY 20th CENTURY STONE MANSIONS IN THE BOLSHOYE MURASHKINO VILLAGE OF NIZHNIY NOVGOROD PROVINCE


In the early 20th century, the village of Bolshoye Murashkino in Knyagininsky District was among the industrially developed non-urban settlements of Nizhniy Novgorod province. The main business of its residents was the production of sheepskin and fur. That business was going through a period of vigorous technological growth at that time. One of the consequences of that growth was extensive construction of personal stone residences by major village industrialists. Whilst being faithful to tradition in the spatial composition and internal layout and engineering design solutions, the architecture of those residential buildings was, at the same time, strikingly unique. Whilst developing within mainstream provincial eclecticism, it demonstrated a wide spectrum of stylistic directions. That variety was reached through detailed attention to the decor of the facades, which featured unique artistic richness. Even today there are around twenty houses dating back to the early 20th century still remaining in Bolshoye Murashkino. V.V.Presnyakov’s house is an exclusively elegant sample of late eclecticism with elements of decorative modernism. The principles and forms of the modernist style are consistently realized in the appearance of the twin residences – the houses of S.S.Panyshev and G.I.Dementyev. The house of V.I.Monevykh with its neoclassicist forms is unique not only for Bolshoye Murashkino but also for the architecture of the Nizhniy Novgorod region as a whole. Considering the broad business connections of the Murashkino furriers, we should look for examples of houses that inspired them not in the architecture of Nizhny Novgorod but in Moscow and, possibly, in European architecture. One of the reasons why the residents of the village decorated their houses was adherence to religious ceremonialism and the fact that many of them were the so-called Old Believers, who in the early 20th century made up the most active and advanced group of Russian business people. As is well-known, it was Old Believers who commissioned buildings in "new" styles such as Neo-Russian and neoclassicism. The early 20th century houses became a prominent page in the architectural annals of Bolshoye Murashkino as a unique phenomenon of provincial architecture.

Key words: commercial and industrial villages, architecture, private residence, decor, eclecticism, modernist style, architectural details


Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-70832 of 30.08.2017 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017