№3(59)
September 2017
ISSN
1990-4126

Russian

«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 40 December 2012

History of architecture


Meerovich Mark G.

DSc (History), DSc (Architecture),
Professor, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Civil Engineering,
Corresponding Member of the International Academy of Architecture.
Irkutsk State Technical University,
Irkutsk, Russia, e-mail: memark@inbox.ru

"GENETICISTS" AND "TELEOLOGISTS": DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE ZONING OF THE USSR


As Soviet industrialisation proceeded, the former system of population settlement was cardinally reformed. The various theoretical and methodological approaches to industrial zoning that became clearly visible in the second half of the 1920s received the names "genetic", based on extrapolation of existing statistics on natural economic development tendencies, and "teleological", based on the implementation of planning directives and development of ways to achieve targets (it was defended by the "communist planners" working at the Gosplan state planning agency).

As a result of the victory of the teleological approach, a new resettlement system was developed, first theoretically and then practically, which was an absolute derivative of industrial zoning. The location of «proletarian kernels», i.e. new industrial facilities, power stations, railway junctions, primary raw material processing factories, mines, etc. was defined proceeding, first and foremost, from the objectives of developing the military-industrial complex – at agencies that were outside the scope of professional architectural and town-planning work and were in no way capable of influencing this choice in favour of locations that would be more suitable for living. Given the political victory of "teleologists" over «geneticists», local terrain, climate, culture and landscape would be sacrificed to artificially (and, sometimes, just arbitrarily) constructed «national economic development plans» for many years to come.

Key words: population settlement, deployment of industry, administrative zoning, spatial structure of the country, geneticists, teleologists


Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-70832 of 30.08.2017 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017