№3(59)
September 2017
ISSN
1990-4126

Russian

«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 36 December 2011

History of architecture


Lipina Tatiana N.

post-graduate student
Research supervisor: Associate Prof. N.I.Bugayeva, C.Sc. (Art Studies),
Ural State Academy of Architecture and Arts Ekaterinburg, Russia

18th-19th CENTURY CULT ARCHITECTURE IN SOUTHERN TRANS-URAL REGION AND ITS ROLE IN THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF VILLAGES (WITH REFERENCE TO ZYRYANOVSKY SETTLEMENT)


Construction of the Zyryanovsky fortress on the river Isset for protecting the peasants of the Kamensk Factory started in 1727. In 1848, it was recognised as unnecessary, and the fortress transformed into an ordinary large village. During the construction phase, a wooden church was built at the centre of the settlement in the name of Sergius, the Wonderworker of Radonezh, which burnt down in 1781. The second wooden church built a year later fell into decay with time, and in 1825 it was replaced with a one-altar stone temple. The new church in the older context became a focus link in the settlement’s panorama.

Numerous reforms carried out by the government during that period served to refurbish and reconstruct the temples in towns and small settlements, for example, in the settlement of Zyryanovsky. The small one-altar church was demolished and replaced with a four-altar one in the name of the Holy Theophany of our Lord in "provincial" classicism. The three-part composition of the Zyryanovsky church of a "ship" type included a semicircular apse, a quadrangular frame, a frater and a belltower. The church belonged to the columnless tiered type. The church ensemble included two identical wings: the parochial school and the household part. The adjoining area of the church was enclosed with a fence that consisted of a continuous brick base, marble columns on it and wrought-iron lattice.

As shops were set up near the church, the popularity of the church square area and the adjoining street was increasing.

In the late 19th century, in Russia and, specifically, in Southern Urals, extensive construction was under way in the area of public buildings, such as schools, hospitals, banks, etc. In 1889, the settlement of Zyaryanovsky saw a bank constructed, a one-storied massive building on a low base.

The sprawling building of the bank occupies the southwest part of the square, at a junction of two streets. Riveting attention to itself, the building organizes all of the free space and ensures harmony with human dimension. Integrated into the simple fabric of the settlement and exchanging references with the church, this commercial building counterbalanced the opposite side of the square, a free, open space smoothly sloping down towards the river.

Thus, the centre of the settlement combined the "old" and the "new" in a uniform planning structure and has become historically and ideologically linked to the architecture of the church. The unique character of the buildings around the church emphasized its aesthetic and artistic qualities whilst revealing the stylistic distinctions of the local architecture.

Key words: cult architecture, Zyryanovsky settlement, classicism, wooden architecture, provincial culture


Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-70832 of 30.08.2017 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017