№58
June 2017
ISSN
1990-4126

Russian

«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 36 December 2011

History of architecture


Gavrilova Svetlana I.

Lead Specialist,
Sverdlovsk Regional Research and Design Centre for
Conservation and Use of Historical and Cultural Heritage,
Ekaterinburg, Russia, e-mail: avolirvag@mail.ru

COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT OF KAMENSK-URALSKY IN THE 1930s. REALIZED AND UNREALIZED PROJECTS


The historical context in which the construction of Ural Aluminium Plant (UAK) and Sinarsky Metallurgical Works in Kamensk-Uralsky took place.

The author has discovered and analysed the 1934 general plans of UAK developed by "Montazhproyektaluminiy" R&D organisation (Leningrad) and the Sverdlovsk office of "Uralaluminstroy" contractor. The structural unit of the UAK development proved to be a planning scheme combining simplified variants of urban blocks/communes and elements of complex residential ‘combines’. The author reviewed the design and realisation of the projects, including the TsZhS complex, « Housing Estate of Uralaluminiy» (block 2-27) with comfortable apartment houses developed on the basis of designs developed by the Moscow firm "Tekhbeton "; the city blocks А-18 and БК-8 with reedfibre-and-frame buildings without building services, and a cottage settlement, which was a kind of elite development. Analysis involved spatial planning compositions and structural units; building typology and stylistics including constructivism and Soviet neoclassicism. The stylistic features of the apartment houses reflect changing architectural styles in the country.

The author has also analyzed the layout of Trubny residential development of Sinarsky Metallurgical Works (Sinarsky Pipe Factory) constructed on the basis of 1932-1934 general plans developed by "Sinarstroy". The urban space of "Trubny" betrays the principles of functionalist town-planning aesthetics with the use of line building and constructivist design of building elevations; the fabric of residential buildings includes community entertainment and personal services. Besides, the plan provided for the construction of a range of comfortable apartment houses with elements of communal services in the central part of this residential development.

Thus, comprehensive development of residential estates in Kamensk-Uralsky in the 1930s followed the innovative architectural tendencies of the Soviet state whilst demonstrating specific features determined by local environmental conditions and the creativity of design organisations and leading architects.

Key words: Socialist town, comprehensive development, commune block, residential ‘combine’, building typology, constructivism, Soviet neoclassicism


Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-50147 of 06.06.2012 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017