№1(61)
March 2018
ISSN
1990-4126

Russian

«Architecton: proceedings of higher education» № 34 June 2011

History of architecture


Yamshanov Igor V.

PhD student, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Research supervisor: Professor V.S.Goryunov, Doctor of Architecture Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

ARCHITECTURE OF NEOGOTHIC TEMPLES, СHAPELS, TOMBS AND GRAVESTONES OF VARIOUS CHRISTIAN DENOMINATIONS DURING THE EPOCH OF ROMANTIC HISTORICISM IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE


The epoch of historicism and its aesthetic concept, with strongly pronounced idealisation of the Middle Ages, left an appreciable mark on 19th century Russian architecture. During that period, construction of Catholic and Lutheran churches started on a large scale. In terms of their figurative system, they were gradually approaching their historical prototype, i.e. the Gothic cathedral.

In the construction of Catholic and Lutheran churches, we can see gradual transition from the classical style to the Neogothic, and eventually, starting in the 1820-1830s, this tendency was getting stronger. Under the influence of the ideas of historicism, a change in the very principle of cult building design occurred. Unconditional superiority was given to medieval models.

Almost all Catholic and Lutheran churches erected during the period from the 1810s to the 1880s in the Russian empire were from brick, and only some of them have fragmentary facing with stone. The absolute majority of temples belong to the hall type and have only one nave. One can also find hall churches with three naves but in a much smaller number.

By the 1880s, certain changes stared to happen in the approach to designing Catholic and Lutheran churches. New projects demonstrated a clear aspiration towards more magnificent and filigree processing of architectural detail.

It is during the historicist period that Neogothic chapels/tombs became widespread. These can be subdivided into types. There are square-plan chapels and chapels with a rectangular and polygonal form of the plan.

The façade decorations exhibited two directions. The first of them is characteristic of stone tombs, presenting stone tracery. The second direction was widespread in the erection of brick chapels as reflected in their simple, ascetic external shape.

The scale of orthodox church construction in Neogothic forms declined after the 1820s, which was caused by changes in the understanding of the Middle Ages in connection with the development of historical scholarly knowledge.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the construction of orthodox cathedrals in Neogothic style came to an end by the 1870s. In subsequent years, neogothic forms were present only in Catholic and Lutheran churches, their decoration becoming increasingly varied and expressive.

Key words: neogothic style, romanticism, historicism, cult structures, churches, chapels, tombs


Russian text of this article

ISSN 1990-4126  Registration MCM el. № ФС 77-70832 of 30.08.2017 © USUAA, 2004-2017  © Architecton, 2004-2017